POWER POINT BIOTEKNOLOGI
Monday, January 12, 2010, United Nations Organization (UNO) have anaunced tha 2010 as Aan International Biodiversity Year. 33,33 % form 1.8 million species was identified on critical condition need more awareness of us. How about Indonesian contect as a Megabiodiversity Country ? And How to prepare Indonesian Young Generation to face Biotechnology Era with their megabiodeversity ?
Indonesia, with its wide range of natural habitats, rich plant and animal resources and high numbers of island endemics, Indonesia is recognized as a major world centre for biodiversity. Although Indonesia covers only 1.3 percent of the earth’s land surface, it includes: 10.0 percent of the world’s flowering plant species 12 percent of the world’s mammal species 16 percent of all reptile and amphibian species 17 percent of the world’s bird species 25 percent or more of the world’s fish species.
Indonesia’s species-rich forests harbour the world’s greatest diversity of palms, more than 400 species of dipterocarps (the most valuable commercial timber trees in Southeast Asia) and estimated 25,000 flowering plants as well as a rich and diverse fauna. Indonesia ranks first in the world for species richness for mammals (515 species, 36 percent endemic), first for swallowtail butterflies (121 species, 44 percent endemic), third for reptiles (600+ species), fourth for birds (1519 species, 28 percent endemic), fifth for amphibians (270 species) and seventh for flowering plants.
Indonesia’s great expanse of territorial waters and the richness of the Indo-West Pacific seas further add to the country’s biodiversity. Indonesia supports a rich variety of coastal and marine habitats. The extensive reef systems in the deep clear sees off Sulawesi and Maluku are among the world richest in species of corals, fishes and other reef organisms.
BIODIVERSITY UTILISATION FOR INDONESIAN
Many of Indonesia’s biological resources are economically important. Several plant species of global and national importance originated in Indonesia, including black pepper, cloves, sugar cane, citrus fruits and many other tropical fruits. More than 6000 species of plants and animals are utilized on a daily basis by Indonesian citizens, either harvested from the wild or cultivated. Seven thousand species of marina freshwater fish are the major sources of protein for the Indonesian people.
Agriculture and fisheries is the mainstay of the nation’s subsistence economy. Numerous wild plants and animals are harvested for domestic or commercial consumption as food, handicrafts, medicines, fuels and building materials.
An estimated 40 million people are directly dependent on biodiversity for subsistence. Twelve million people live in and around forests and many more are dependent on coastal resources. It is the poorest rural people who are most dependent on biodiversity and natural habitats for their livelihoods and it is they who suffer first and most when those habitats are simplified, degraded or otherwise impoverished.
Indonesia’s biodiversity is the country’s greatest natural resources. Many sector of the nation’s economy are dependent directly and indirectly on the diversity of natural ecosystems and the environmental functions they protect. Conservation of biodiversity is crucial to the sustainability of sectors as diverse as forestry, agriculture and fisheries; health care; science; industry and tourism.
In Health care utilization, Indonesian have so many Traditional Medicine Heritage, as such as Traditional Cosmetic Heritage ( Astringent powder or, Sun block, Whitening ext. ); Traditional Healthy Soft drink ( Tamarind juice / gula asam , Hot ginger, Mixed herbal soft drink); Multipurpose Herbal from a Vinka leaf flower for cancer, Diabetus Mellitus and kidney inflammation, Piper battle leaf for antibiotics , Jasmine for breath problems ext.).
One of the most important factor affecting how people use resources changes in technology. Thai is, the development of new materials machinery or processes. These developments may reduce the need for a once commonly used resource, or boost the demand for s resource that was previously little used. The most important of technology to utilize Indonesian biodiversity benefit is biotechnology.
Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life. The earliest biotechnologists were farmers who developed improved species of plants and animals by cross pollenization or cross breeding. In recent years, biotechnology has expanded in sophistication, scope, and applicability.
PREPARING INDONESIAN YOUNG GENERATION
To face a biotechnology Era, Indonesian Young Generation have to improve their capability to take advantage position as a Mega Biodiversity Country. For make this goal successfully, those are several recommended steps as bellow
1.Increasing Indonesian Biodiversity awareness
2.Improving knowledge of An Indonesian Traditional Biotechnology as such as
Traditional Medicine, Nutrient Fermented Feed as such as Tempe (Fermented Soy bean by Rhizopus orizae, Rizhopus stoloniferus and Rhizopus oligosporus),Tape (Fermented Cassava by Sacharomyces cerevicae) ect.Healthy Soft Drink (Jamu) as High Level Cultural Heritage.
3.Socialization Modern Biotechnology application for any level of Indonesian Education Especially for Junior and Senior High School Students.
By the reason above, Indonesian will be a leading country on Biotechnology Era if we prepare Our young Generation in Biotechnology skill.